Immunohistochemistry (IHC)Immunohistochemistry (IHC)

Purpose: Immunohistochemistry involves the detection of specific chemical substances (infectious agents or cellular markers) within tissue by the use of derived antibodies to the substances. Antibodies (polyclonal or monoclonal) are applied to tissue sections and allowed to bind to their corresponding antigen. A detection system is then employed to identify the location of these antibodies using amplified marker molecules that can be visually recorded. These identifiable substrates offer a documentation of localization that can be seen through the microscope at the cellular level. In this way, individual cells or groups of cells can be monitored for the presence of the specific antigen. 

The techniques for detection are numerous, but the overall technology is essentially the same. WADDL currently utilizes multiple detection systems including the streptavidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase detection method, an alkaline phosphatase Fast Red/Luxol detection method, and peroxidase anti-peroxidase method depending on the specific test. The results are interpreted and reported by the pathologist.

Samples: Formalin-fixed tissues or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues


Positive and negative control slides provided with each ordered test:

  1. Positive control: Positive tissue incubated with positive antibody
  2. Negative control: Test tissue incubated with matched concentration of irrelevant antibody

Ordering Information: Include animal species and tissue type for each case 

 Chromogen for all IHC assays depends upon the test run and include both amino-ethyl-carbazole (AEC), which is red/brown and UltraView Red, which is bright magenta.. Counterstain for all IHC assays is Mayer's hematoxylin, which is blue.

TestSpecimenShipping ContainerMax. TurnaroundComments

Infectious Agents


Tissues in 10% Formalin OR Formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.Leakproof jar or Styrofoam mailer

7 working days

Results interpreted as “Detected” or “Not Detected” and reported separately from pathology report.
Tumor MarkersTissues in 10% Formalin OR Formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.Leakproof jar or Styrofoam mailer

7 working days

Results interpreted as “positive” or “negative” and reported as part of pathology report

Available procedures and prices can be accessed in the WADDL Web Test Search Tool.  Type in "IHC" and click on Search.

Infectious AgentsClinical DiseaseComments
Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (IBR)Abortion, Respiratory
Bovine Respiratory Syncytial VirusRespiratory
Bovine Viral Diarrhea VirusAbortion, Enteric, Respiratory, Systemic
Bovine Viral Diarrhea - Ear NotchBVD Persistent infection (PI)BVD Antigen ELISA preferred
Canine Coronavirus   
Canine Distemper Virus   
Canine ParvovirusEnteric
Coxiella burnetii Abortion Reportable disease
Equine Herpesvirus-1Abortion, Respiratory
Feline Coronavirus (FIP)
Feline Infectious Peritonitis
Feline ParvovirusEnteric
Leptospira spp.Abortion, Systemic
Listeria monocytogenesAbortion, Neurologic
Prion-CWDNeurologicReportable disease
Prion-ScrapieNeurologicReportable disease
Tumor MarkersNeoplasmCell Specificity
Chromatogranin A   
Cytokeratin (Pan)CarcinomaEpithelial cell
DesminRhabdomyosarcomaSkeletal muscle
Factor VIIIHemangiosarcomaEndothelial cell
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)   
Lambda light chainPlasmacytomaPlasma cell
Melan AMelanomaMelanocyte
Muscle ActinLeiomyosarcoma, RhabdomyosarcomaSkeletal muscle myocyte, Smooth muscle myocyte
VimentinSarcomaMesenchymal cell