Virology

VirologyVirology

This page contains information regarding proper specimen collection, and test methodology for viral, protozoal, and chlamydial disesases.

Introduction

If a viral/protozoal/chlamydial disease is suspected, it is very important to collect specimens as soon as possible following onset of clinical symptoms or death of the animal. If testing for export, subclinical carriers, pre-sale, pre-breeding examination, clinically normal animals, etc, contact the laboratory for the best samples to collect.

Tissue specimens should be placed in sterile sealed containers or plastic bags, (i.e., Whirl-Pak bags) and kept refrigerated. Swab samples (conjunctival, nasal, oral, fecal, vaginal) can best be collected using a universal transport media a

If this media is not available, 2 ml of sterile saline solution in a red top tube is a good substitute.

Chilled specimens and swabs are preferred. If the time period between collection and receipt at the Laboratory is longer than 24 hours, add an extra ice pack or two. Sample selection is very important (see below).

Chlamydophila Preparation of Field Samples

Samples 

  1. Abortion (cattle, sheep, goats) - Portion of placenta/cotoyledon, fetal lung or liver; preferably in universal transport media
  2. Nasal, eye, fecal swabs expressed in universal transport media (scrape well - need cells)
  3. Cattle - spleen, liver, brain, lung
  4. Sheep & goats - lung, spleen, synovial fluid, intact joints

Media Storage

    Refrigerator

Shipping

    Note: Chlamydophila are extremely vulnerable to physical and chemical environmental factors. Temperature range is critical; Chlamydophila may be destroyed in less than 5 minutes at 56 C. The extracellular morphological form may be destroyed in 48 hours at 37 C. Ship all samples on ice and as quickly as possible.

    BVD-PI (Persistent Infection) Ear Notch Testing Program
    Number of Cattle TestedPCR Pool SizePCR Charge per HeadAg-ELISA charge per Head
    <12 samplesNo PoolingNA$6.00
    12-35 samples12$4.50$2.00 *
    36-99 samplesup to 36$3.50$2.00 *
    100 or more samplesup to 36$2.50$2.00 *

    * BVD Ag-ELISA testing on individual samples within a PCR positive pool
    Non-Washington samples will be assesed a 50% surcharge.

    Also see:
    Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Persistent Infection (BVD-PI) Ear Notch Testing Programfor Cattle Herds

    Virus/Protozoa/Chlamydophila Assays   Fees

    PorcineAntemortem   Postmortem
     SampleTest SampleTest
    PseudorabiesOropharyngeal swab, Vaginal swab (abortion)
    Paired Sera (Red top (serum) tube)
    Virus isolation ,

    Serology

    Fixed tissues (brain, lung, lymphoid, liver, oropharynx)
    Tonsil, brain
    Histopathology ,

    Virus isolation

    TGE/GI CoronavirusFecesElectron microscopyFixed tissues ,
    Feces/GI contents ,
    Fresh intestine
    Histopathology ,
    Electron microscopy ,
    Antigen detection in fresh tissue by fluorescent antibody technique
    Porcine parvovirus (abortion)Paired Sera (Red top (serum) tube)SerologyFresh fetal tissues (lung) ,
    Fetal fluid
    Antigen detection in fresh tissue by fluorescent antibody technique , b
    Serology
    EnterovirusFeces
    Paired Sera (Red top (serum) tube)
    Electron microscopy ,
    Serology b
    Fresh fetal tissuesAntigen detection in fresh tissue by fluorescent antibody technique b
    InfluenzaNasal SwabAntigen detection in fresh tissue by fluorescent antibody technique b Fresh lungAntigen detection in fresh tissue by fluorescent antibody technique b

    BovineAntemortem Postmortem
     SampleTest SampleTest
    IBR abortion
    or
    Neontal IBR
    NA Fixed tissues (liver, adrenal gland, lung, spleen, lymphoid) ,
    Paired maternal sera
    Histopathology ,
    Immunohistochemistry (antigen detection in fixed tissue) ,
    Serology
    IBR respiratoryNasal/Ocular Swab, Transtracheal Wash,
    Paired sera (Red top tube)
    Virus isolation ,

    Serology

    Trachea, Nasal mucosaHistopathology ,
    Immunohistochemistry (antigen detection in fixed tissue)
    BVD abortion /weak calfBlood (Purple top-EDTA) tube and Red top(serum) tube, Paired sera (Red top tube)Virus isolation ,
    Serology
    Fixed tissues (lung, lymphoid, kidney, thyroid, brain, liver),
    Paired maternal sera
    Histopathology ,
    Immunohistochemistry (antigen detection in fixed tissue) ,
    Serology ,
    Virus isolation
    BVD respiratory/ entericBlood (Purple top EDTA) tube and Red top (serum) tube
    Paired sera(Red top tube)
    Virus isolation ,
    Serology
    Fixed tissues (lung, GI tract , thyroid, kidney, lymphoid brain)Histopathology, Immunohistochemistry (antigen detection in fixed tissue)
    BVD PI1.Red top (serum) tube
    2. Ear notch See BVD-PI Ear Notch Testing Program
    3. Purple top (EDTA) tube) c
    1. Ag ELISA
    2. Ag ELISA/PCR
    3. PCR (request 2 tests, 21 days apart)
    Fixed tissues (lung, GI tract thyroid, kidney, lymphoid brain)Histopathology, Immunohistochemistry (antigen detection in fixed tissue)
    BRSVNasal/Ocular swab, Transtracheal Wash, Bronchial lavage,
    Paired Sera (Red top tube)
    RSV antigen detection in fresh tissue or body fluids by ELISA ,

    Serology

    Fresh lung , Bronchial froth ,

    Fixed lung

    RSV antigen detection in fresh tissue or body fluids by ELISA

    Histopathology, Immunohistochemistry (antigen detection in fixed tissue)

    VSV d Vesicle swab/fluid
    Serum (Red top  tube)
    Virus isolation ,
    Serology
    Vesicle Swab/fluidVirus isolation
    BLVSerum (Red top tube) Herd or population analysis available SerologyFixed tissueHistopathology
    RotavirusFeces ,
    GI contents
    Electron microscopy or rota antigen detection by ELISAFixed GI tissues ,
    GI contents/feces
    Histopathology ,
    Electron microscopy
    CoronavirusFeces , GI contents Electron microscopyFixed GI tissues ,
    GI contents/feces

    Histopathology ,
    Electron microscopy

    Bredavirus
    (Torovirus)
    Feces ,  GI contents Electron microscopyFixed GI tissues ,
    GI contents/feces
    Histopathology ,
    Electron microscopy
    Bluetongue Virus (BTV)Blood (Green top - heparin tube ) Purple top (EDTA) tube ,
    Serum (Red top tube)
    Virus isolation ,
    Serology ,
    PCR
    Fixed tissues ,
    Fresh Spleen
    Histopathology ,
    Virus isolation
    Neospora caninumSerum (Red top tube) Herd or population analysis available SerologyPlacenta and fetal tissues (brain. heart, liver) ,
    maternal ser um
    Histopathology,
    PCR detection in fixed tissue , 


    Ovine/CaprineAntemortemPostmortem
     SampleTest SampleTest
    BD/PestivirusBlood (Purple top EDTA tube) and Red top (serum)tube
    Virus isolation ,
    Serology
    Fixed tissues (complete set) ,
    Fresh tissues ,
    Paired maternal sera
    Histopathology ,
    Virus isolation
    ORSVNasal/Ocular swab, Transtracheal Wash, Bronchial lavage.
    Paired Sera
    RSV antigen detection in fresh tissue or body fluids by ELISA

    Serology

    Fresh lung , Bronchial froth ,

    Fixed lung

    RSV antigen detection in fresh tissue or body fluids by ELISA

    Histopathology, Immunohistochemistry (antigen detection in fixed tissue)

    BTVBlood (Green top (heparin) tube, Purple top (EDTA) tube)
    Serum (Red top tube)
    Virus isolation ,
    Serology
    Fresh tissues (Spleen) ,
    Fixed tissues (complete set)
    Virus isolation ,
    Histopathology ,
    PCR on fixed tissues
    OPPV/CAEVSerum (Red top tube)SerologyFixed tissue (lung, joint, udder, brain)Histopathology
    RotavirusFecesElectron microscopy Fixed GI tissues ,
    GI contents/feces
    Histopathology ,
    Electron microscopy
    CoronavirusFecesElectron microscopyFixed GI tissues ,
    GI contents/feces
    Histopathology ,
    Electron microscopy
    BredavirusFecesElectron microscopyFixed GI tissues ,
    GI contents/feces
    Histopathology ,
    Electron microscopy
    Poxvirus (orf)Scab or vesicle fluidElectron microscopyFixed tissues (skin)Histopathology
    ChlamydophilaUrogenital fluidsChlamydophila antigen detection in fresh tissue or body fluids by ELISAFresh placenta ,

    Fixed placenta ,
    Fixed fetal tissues

    Chlamydophila antigen detection in fresh tissue or body fluids by ELISA ,
    Immunohistochemistry (antigen detection in fixed tissue) ,
    Histopathology
    CoxiellaSerum (Red top tube)Serology b Fixed PlacentaHistopathology, Immunohistochemistry (antigen detection in fixed tissue)
    ToxoplasmosisSerum (Red top tube)SerologyPlacenta and fixed fetal tissues ,
    Paired maternal sera (Red top tube)
    Histopathology, Immunohistochemistry (antigen detection in fixed tissue) ,
    Serology
    Neospora caninumSerum (Red top tube)SerologyPlacenta and fetal tissues (brain. heart, liver) ,
    M aternal sera
    Histopathology, Immunohistochemistry (antigen detection in fixed tissue) ,

    Serology

    EquineAntemortemPostmortem
     SampleTest SampleTest
    EHV-1 abortionPaired maternal sera (Red top tube)SerologyFixed tissues (lung, liver, spleen)Histopathology, Immunohistochemistry (antigen detection in fixed tissue)
    EHV-1 Neurogenic CSF
    Paired Sera (Red top tube)
    Virus isolation, Serology ,
    PCR
    Fixed CNS tissuesHistopathology, Immunohistochemistry (antigen detection in fixed tissue)
    EHV, EHV-4 RespiratoryNasal/Ocular swab, Transtracheal Wash,
    Paired Sera (Red top tube)
    Virus isolation ,

    Serology ,
    PCR

    NA 
    EHV-3 coital exanthemaUrogenital secretions
    Paired Sera (Red top tube)
    Virus isolation ,
    Serology
    NA 
    EVASemen, Nasal Swab, Transtracheal wash, Paired Sera (Red top tube), Purple top (EDTA) tubeVirus isolation, Serology, PCR - semen Fixed tissues (complete set)Histopathology ,
    Virus isolation from fresh tissues (spleen, lymph nodes)
    EIASerum (Red top tube)SerologyFixed tissues (complete set)Histopathology
    RotavirusFecesElectron microscopyFixed GI tissues ,
    GI contents/feces
    Histopathology ,
    Electron microscopy
    CoronavirusFecesElectron microscopyFixed GI tissues ,
    GI contents/feces
    Histopathology ,
    Electron microscopy
    InfluenzaPaired Sera (Red top tube)

    Transtracheal Wash

    Serology ,
    Flu antigen detection in fresh tissue or body fluids by ELISA
    NA 


    CanineAntemortemPostmortem
     SampleTest SampleTest
    CDVConjunctival Swab, Blood (Purple top EDTA tube)
    Acute Serum (Red top tube), CSF
    Antigen detection swab or on blood smears by fluorescent antibody technique,

    Serology

    Fixed tissues (lung, brain, stomach, bladder, GI, lymphoid)Histopathology, Immunohistochemistry (antigen detection in fixed tissue)
    CPVFeces ,

    Acute Serum (Red top tube)

    Virus isolation, Electron microscopy, CPV antigen detection in fresh tissue or body fluids by ELISA ,
    Serology
    Fixed GI tissuesHistopathology, Electron microscopy, Immunohistochemistry
    CCVFeces ,
    Paired sera (Red top tube)
    Electron microscopy ,
    Serology
    Fixed tissues ,
    Feces/GI contents
    Histopathology ,
    Electron microscopy ,
    Immunohistochemistry
    CHVOropharyngeal swab, vesicle swab
    Paired Sera (Red top tube)
    Virus isolation,

    Serology

    Fixed tissues , (lymphoid, kidney, lung)Histopathology ,
    Virus isolation from fresh tissues (kidney, liver, lung)
    CAdVOropharyngeal swab, feces, urine
    Paired Sera (Red top tube)
    Virus isolation ,

    Serology

    Fixed tissues (liver)Histopathology ,
    Immunohistochemistry
    Leptospirosis d Paired Sera (Red top tube)SerologyFixed tissues ( kidney )Histopathology, Immunohistochemistry
    ToxoplasmosisPaired Sera (Red top tube)SerologyFixed tissues (lung, brain, lymphoid, liver, kidney)Histopathology, Immunohistochemistry (antigen detection in fixed tissue)

    FelineAntemortemPostmortem
     SampleTest SampleTest
    FeLVSerum (Red top  tube), Blood (Purple top EDT A tube), SalivaFeLV antigen detection in fresh tissue or body fluids by ELISA Fixed tissues (bone marrow, lymphoid)Histopathology
    FIVSerum (Red top tube)FIV antibody detection in serum by ELISA NA 
    FIP/FECVFeces ,
    Paired Sera (Red top tube)
    Electron microscopy ,
    Serology
     Fixed tissues (kidney, brain, GI, liver, lung)Histopathology ,
    Immunohistochemistry
    FHVOronasal/vesicle swab
    Paired Sera (Red top tube)
    Virus isolation,
    Serology
     Fixed tissues ,
    Fresh tissues (lung)
    Histopathology ,
    Virus isolation
    FCaliciVOropharyngeal vesicle swab ,
    Paired Sera (Red top tube)
    Virus isolation,
    Serology
     Fixed tissues ,
    Fresh tissues (lung)
    Histopathology ,
    Virus isolation
    FPV panleukopeniaFeces ,
    Acute Serum (Red top tube)
    Electron microscopy, Virus isolation ,
    Serology
     Fixed tissuesHistopathology ,
    Immunohistochemistry
    ChlamydophilaConjunctival SwabChlamydophila antigen detection in fresh tissue or body fluids by ELISA NA 
    ToxoplasmosisPaired Sera (Red top tube)Serology Fixed tissuesHistopathology, Immunohistochemistry (antigen detection in fixed tissue)


    a Universal transport media, Becton, Dickinson, #220221

    b Forwarded to appropriate laboratory for analysis

    c EDTA samples can be pooled at the lab and screened by PCR. Contact the lab for details.

    d Reportable to State Veterinarian's office   WA   360-902-1878   ID 208-334-3256